Custody is not only awarded to parents because in the event that the parent is deemed unfit, petition for guardianship can be filed. However, it is also important to note that grounds for petition for guardianship must also be taken into consideration.
Section 1. Where to institute proceedings. — Guardianship of a person or estate of a minor or incompetent may be instituted in the Court of First Instance of the province, or in the justice of the peace court of the municipality, or in the municipal court chartered city where the minor or incompetent persons resides, and if he resides in a foreign country, in the Court of First Instance of the province wherein his property or the party thereof is situated; provided, however, that where the value of the property of such minor or incompetent exceeds that jurisdiction of the justice of the peace or municipal court, the proceedings shall be instituted in the Court of First Instance.
In the City of Manila the proceedings shall be instituted in the Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court.
Section 2. Meaning of word "incompetent." — Under this rule, the word "incompetent" includes persons suffering the penalty of civil interdiction or who are hospitalized lepers, prodigals, deaf and dumb who are unable to read and write, those who are of unsound mind, even though they have lucid intervals, and persons not being of unsound mind, but by reason of age, disease, weak mind, and other similar causes, cannot, without outside aid, take care of themselves and manage their property, becoming thereby an easy prey for deceit and exploitation.
Section 3. Transfer of venue. — The court taking cognizance of a guardianship proceeding, may transfer the same to the court of another province or municipality wherein the ward has acquired real property, if he has transferred thereto his bona-fide residence, and the latter court shall have full jurisdiction to continue the proceedings, without requiring payment of additional court fees.
Appointment of Guardians
Section 1. Who may petition for appointment of guardian for resident. — Any relative, friend, or other person on behalf of a resident minor or incompetent who has no parent or lawful guardian, or the minor himself if fourteen years of age or over, may petition the court having jurisdiction for the appointment of a general guardian for the person or estate, or both, of such minor or incompetent. An officer of the Federal Administration of the United States in the Philippines may also file a petition in favor of a ward thereof, and the Director of Health, in favor of an insane person who should be hospitalized, or in favor of an isolated leper.
Section 2. Contents of petition. — A petition for the appointment of a general guardian must show, so far as known to the petitioner:
(a) The jurisdiction facts;
(b) The minority or incompetency rendering the appointment necessary or convenient;
(c) The names, ages, and residence of the relatives of the minor or incompetent, and of the person having him in their care;
(d) The probable value and character of his estate;
(e) The name of the person for whom letters of guardianship.
The petition shall be verified; but no defect in the petition or verification shall render void the issuance of letters of guardianship.
Section 3. Court to set time for hearing. Notice thereof. — When a petition for the appointment of a general guardian is filed, the court shall fix a time and place for hearing the same, and shall cause reasonable notice thereof to be given to the persons mentioned in the petition residing in the province, including the minor if above 14 years of age or the incompetent himself, and may direct other general or special notice thereof to be given.
Section 4. Opposition to petition. — Any interested person may, by filing a written opposition, contest the petition on the ground of majority of the alleged minor, competency of the alleged incompetent, or the insuitability of the person for whom letters are prayed, and may pray that the petition be dismissed, or that letters of guardianship issue to himself, or to any suitable person named in the opposition.
Section 5. Hearing and order for letters to issue. — At the hearing of the petition the alleged in competent must be present if able to attend, and it must be shown that the required notice has been given. Thereupon the courts shall hear the evidence of the parties in support of their respective allegations, and, if the person in question is a minor, or incompetent it shall be appoint a suitable guardian of his person or estate, or both, with the powers and duties hereinafter specified.
Section 6. When and how guardian for non-resident appointed. Notice. — When a person liable to be put under guardianship resides without the Philippines but the estate therein, any relative or friend of such person, or any one interested in his estate, in expectancy or otherwise, may petition a court having jurisdiction for the appointment of a guardian for the estate, and if, after notice given to such person and in such manner as the court deems proper, by publication or otherwise, and hearing, the court is satisfied that such non-resident is a minor or incompetent rendering a guardian necessary or convenient, it may appoint a guardian for such estate.
Section 7. Parents as guardians. — When the property of the child under parental authority is worth two thousand pesos or less, the father of the mother, without the necessity of court appointment, shall be his legal guardian. When the property of the child is worth more than two thousand pesos, the father or the mother shall be considered guardian of the child's property, with the duties and obligations of guardians under this rules, and shall file the petition required by section 2 hereof. For good reasons the court may, however, appoint another suitable person.
Section 8. Service of judgment. — Final orders or judgments under this rule shall be served upon the civil registrar of the municipality or city where the minor or incompetent person resides or where his property or part thereof is situated.
Bonds of Guardians
Section 1. Bond to be given before issuance of letters. Amount. Condition. — Before a guardian appointed enters upon the execution of his trust, or letters of guardianship issue, he shall give a bond, in such sum as the court directs, conditioned as follows:
(a) To make and return to the court, within three (3) months, a true and complete inventory of all the estate, real and personal, of his ward which shall come to his possession or knowledge of any other person for him;
(b) To faithfully execute the duties of his trust, to manage and dispose of the estate according to these rules for the best interests of the ward, and to provide for the proper care, custody, and education of the ward;
(c) To render a true and just account of all the estate of the ward in his hands, and of all proceeds or interest derived therefrom, and of the management and disposition of the same, at the time designated by these rules and such other times as the courts directs, and at the expiration of his trust to settle his accounts with the court and deliver and pay over all the estate, effects, and moneys remaining in his hands, or due from him on such settlement, to the person lawfully entitled thereto;
(d) To perform all orders of the court by him to be performed.
Section 2. When new bond may be required and old sureties discharged. — Whenever it is deemed necessary, the court may require a new bond to be given by the guardian, and may discharge the sureties on the old bond from further liability, after due notice to interested persons, when no injury can result therefrom to those interested in the estate.
Section 3. Bonds to be filed. Actions thereon. — Every bond given by a guardian shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the court, and, in case of the breach of a condition thereof, may be prosecuted in the same proceeding or in a separate action for the use and benefit of the ward or of any other person legally interested in the estate.
Selling and Encumbering Property of Ward
Section 1. Petition of guardian for leave to sell or encumber estate. — When the income of the estate under guardianship is insufficient to maintain the ward and his family, or to maintain and educate the ward when a minor, or when it appears that it is for the benefit of the ward that his real estate or some part thereof be sold, or mortgaged or otherwise encumbered, and the proceeds thereof put out at interest, or invested in some productive security, or in the improvement or security or other real estate of the ward, the guardian may present a verified petition to the court by which he was appointed setting forth such facts, and praying that an order issue authorizing the sale or encumbrance.
Section 2. Order to show cause thereupon. — If it seems probable that such sale or encumbrance is necessary, or would be beneficial to the ward, the court shall make an order directing the next of kin of the ward, and all persons interested in the estate, to appear at a reasonable time and place therein specified to show cause why the prayer of the petition should not be granted.
Section 3. Hearing on return of order. Costs. — At the time and place designated in the order to show cause, the court shall hear the proofs and allegations of the petitioner and next of kin, and other persons interested, together with their witnesses, and grant and refuse the prayer of the petition as the best interest of the ward require. The court shall make such order as to cost of the hearing as may be just.
Section 4. Contents of order for sale or encumbrance, and how long effective. Bond. — If, after full examination, it appears that it is necessary, or would be beneficial to the ward, to sell or encumber the estate, or some portion of it, the court shall order such sale or encumbrance and that the proceeds thereof be expended for the maintenance of the ward and his family, or the education of the ward, if a minor, or for the putting of the same interest, or the investment of the same as the circumstances may require. The order shall specify the causes why the sale or encumbrance is necessary or beneficial, and may direct that estate ordered sold be disposed of at either public or private sale, subject to such conditions as to the time and manner of payment, and security where a part of the payment is deferred as in the discretion of the court are deemed most beneficial to the ward. The original bond of the guardian shall stand as security for the proper appropriation of the proceeds of the sale, but the judge may, if deemed expedient, require an additional bond as a condition for the granting of the order of sale. No order of sale granted in pursuance of this section shall continue in force more than one (1) year after granting the same, without a sale being had.
Section 5. Court may order investment of proceeds and direct management of estate. — The court may authorize and require the guardian to invest the proceeds of sales or encumbrances, and any other of his ward's money in his hands, in real estate or otherwise, as shall be for the best interest of all concerned, and may make such other orders for the management, investment, and disposition of the estate and effects, as circumstances may require.